U.S. Sanctions and National Security
April 15, 2016
Economic sanctions have become an increasingly important way for the United States to project power and advance its national interests. Most recently, innovative and effective sanctions have addressed Iran’s nuclear program and Russia’s aggression in Ukraine, demonstrating the importance of coercive economic measures to U.S. foreign policy. But as sanctions have become a key piece of the U.S. strategy abroad, policymakers and thought leaders have raised questions about the role, effectiveness, and centrality of sanctions in U.S. policy.
This CNAS public conference on U.S. sanctions and national security, co-hosted with the Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law, will feature an overview of administration policy on sanctions and a discussion among distinguished former policy leaders on the role for coercive economic measures in tackling the security challenges of the future. The event coincides with the release of a CNAS report on the effects and effectiveness of sanctions since 9/11. Some questions this conference will explore include: how can the United States measure and achieve intended effects from the use of coercive economic measures? What place should sanctions have in the U.S. national security arsenal? And as American rivals become more familiar with the tools of economic statecraft, what defensive measures are available to protect U.S. interests from retaliation for the imposition of sanctions?
Daniel W. Drezner, Professor of International Politics, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University
Daniel W. Drezner is Professor of International Politics, a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, and a contributing editor at the Washington Post. Prior to Fletcher, he taught at the University of Chicago and the University of Colorado at Boulder. He has previously held positions with Civic Education Project, the RAND Corporation and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and received fellowships from the German Marshall Fund of the United States, Council on Foreign Relations, and Harvard University. Drezner has written five books, including All Politics is Global and Theories of International Politics and Zombies, and edited two others, including Avoiding Trivia. He has published articles in numerous scholarly journals as well as in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Politico, and Foreign Affairs, and has been a contributing editor for Foreign Policy and The National Interest. He received his B.A. in political economy from Williams College and an M.A. in economics and PhD in political science from Stanford University. His blog for Foreign Policy magazine was named by Time as one of the 25 best blogs of 2012, and he currently writes the “Spoiler Alerts” blog for the Washington Post. His latest book, The System Worked: How the World Stopped Another Great Depression, was published by Oxford University Press in June 2014.
Sue Eckert, Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration; Senior Fellow in International and Public Affairs, Brown University
The Honorable Sue E. Eckert served as assistant secretary of export administration in the Clinton Administration. At the Watson Institute, she co-directs the projects on Targeted Sanctions and Terrorist Financing and explores cybersecurity governance issues.
Eckert and colleague Thomas Biersteker lead an international research consortium and database (Targeted Sanctions Consortium) of more than 50 scholars and practitioners located at institutions around the world examining the impacts and effectiveness of United Nations targeted sanctions. She works extensively with UN bodies to enhance instruments of collective security, having co-authored Targeted Financial Sanctions: A Manual for Design and Implementation, participated in the series of multilateral initiatives (the Interlaken, Bonn-Berlin, and Stockholm Processes), and organized workshops, simulations, and training for the Security Council and related groups.
Eckert has served on numerous working groups and committees addressing security and technology issues, including the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Deterring Cyberattacks, the Resource Group advising the United Nations' High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change established by Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Club of Madrid's International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism, and Security, and the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Science, Technology, and Health Aspects of the Foreign Policy Agenda of the United States.
From 1993 to 1997, she served as US assistant secretary of commerce for export administration, responsible for US dual-use export control policy and defense industrial base programs in the Clinton Administration. Previously, she served on the professional staff of the US House of Representative's Committee on Foreign Affairs, where she oversaw technology transfer, international trade, and national security/nonproliferation issues.
Zachary Goldman, Executive Director, Center on Law and Security, NYU School of Law
Zachary K. Goldman is the Executive Director of the Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law. Zachary returned to NYU after having served for several years in the US government. He first served as a policy advisor in the US Department of the Treasury’s Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence, where he was the subject matter expert on terrorist financing in the Arabian Peninsula, and worked on the development of Iran sanctions policy. He then served at the US Department of Defense as a Special Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In the private sector, Zachary worked in the litigation department of Sullivan & Cromwell LLP in New York. He has published on national security strategy, financial sanctions, cybersecurity, counterterrorism, and US foreign policy in outlets such as The New York Times, Foreign Affairs, Political Science Quarterly, Cold War History, The Atlantic, The Diplomat, The National Interest, and others. He is the co-editor, with Samuel Rascoff, of Intelligence Oversight: A Global View, an edited volume on comparative approaches to intelligence oversight, which will be published by Oxford University Press in 2016. Zachary is a Term Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and an Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Center for a New American Security. He received his JD from New York University School of Law, his Masters in International Relations from the London School of Economics, and his BA from Harvard University.
Robert M. Kimmitt, Former Deputy Secretary, U.S. Department of the Treasury; Senior International Counsel, WilmerHale
Ambassador Robert M. Kimmitt advises clients on issues spanning public policy, national security law, international investment, regulation and governance. Both in government and the private sector, he has held a wide variety of senior positions at the intersection of international business, finance, law and policy. Ambassador Kimmitt originally joined the firm in 1997 and rejoined in 2009 after serving as Deputy Secretary of the US Department of the Treasury. He serves as co-chair of the Strategic Response Group
From 2005-2009, he served as Deputy Secretary of the US Treasury, where he had significant responsibility for the Department's international agenda, including cross-border investment in his leadership role on the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS).
As a partner at the firm from 1997 to 2000, Ambassador Kimmitt focused on international transactions in regulated industries, primarily in the areas of defense, aerospace, telecommunications and banking.
Prior to joining the firm, he served as American Ambassador to Germany (1991-1993), Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (1989-1991), General Counsel to the Department of the Treasury (1985-1987), and Executive Secretary and General Counsel of the National Security Council at the White House (1983-1985).
In addition to his government service, Ambassador Kimmitt was Vice Chairman and President of Commerce One, a Silicon Valley software company. He also served as Executive Vice President for Global Public Policy (2001-2005) at Time Warner Inc., and from 2009-2012, he chaired the Deloitte Center for Cross-Border Investment, which provided strategic advice on the execution of cross-border acquisitions and divestitures
Ambassador Kimmitt has authored many articles, including "Public Footprints in Private Markets," a seminal look at Sovereign Wealth Funds that was published in Foreign Affairs magazine.
Elizabeth Rosenberg, Senior Fellow and Director, Energy, Economics, and Security Program, Center for a New American Security
Elizabeth Rosenberg is a Senior Fellow and Director of the Energy, Economics and Security Program at the Center for a New American Security. In this capacity, she publishes and speaks on the national security and foreign policy implications of energy market shifts and the environmental effects of climate change. She has testified before Congress on energy issues and been quoted widely by leading media outlets in the United States and Europe.
From May 2009 through September 2013, Ms. Rosenberg served as a Senior Advisor at the U.S. Department of the Treasury, to the Assistant Secretary for Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes, and then to the Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. In these senior roles she helped to develop and implement financial and energy sanctions. Key initiatives she helped to oversee include the tightening of global sanctions on Iran, the launching of new, comprehensive sanctions against Libya and Syria and modification of Burma sanctions in step with normalization of diplomatic relations. She also helped to formulate anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing policy and oversee financial regulatory enforcement activities.
From 2005 to 2009 Ms. Rosenberg was an energy policy correspondent at Argus Media in Washington D.C., analyzing U.S and Middle Eastern energy policy, regulation and trading. She spoke and published extensively on OPEC, strategic reserves, energy sanctions and national security policy, oil and natural gas investment and production, and renewable fuels.
Ms. Rosenberg studied energy subsidy reform and Arabic during a 2004-2005 fellowship in Cairo, Egypt. She was an editor of the Arab Studies Journal from 2002-2005 and researched and wrote on Middle Eastern politics at the Council on Foreign Relations in 2003. She received an MA in Near Eastern Studies from New York University and a BA in Politics and Religion from Oberlin College.
Julia Solomon-Strauss, Program Associate, Center on Law and Security, NYU School of Law
Julia Solomon-Strauss is the Program Associate at the Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law. She works with the Executive Director, Director of Operations, and Senior Fellows of CLS to support all of the Center's activities, including research, writing, event coordination, and logistical support. She has worked at Harvard Business School's Europe Research Center in Paris and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Julia holds an MPhil in Historical Studies from the University of Cambridge and an AB in Harvard College magna cum laude with highest honors in Social Studies.
Matt Spence, Senior Fellow, Center on Law and Security, NYU School of Law
Dr. Matthew Spence is a Senior Fellow at the Center on Law and Security and a Senior Fellow at Yale University’s Jackson Institute for International Affairs and a Managing Director at Guggenheim Partners, where he focuses on technology and security investment banking.
From 2012 to 2015, Dr. Spence served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Middle East Policy, where he was the principal advisor to three Secretaries of Defense for U.S. policy towards the Middle East. He was responsible for fourteen countries, including Iraq, Syria, Iran, Israel, Egypt, and the Gulf states. During his time at the Pentagon, Dr. Spence traveled to the region over 30 times, and played a central role in U.S.-Israel military planning, the Iron Dome program, arms sales, and policy dialogues about Iran, Syria, Egypt, and the Middle East Peace Process.
Dr. Spence also served in a senior role on Secretary of Defense Ash Carter’s confirmation and transition team. He received the Secretary of Defense Award for Outstanding Public Service.
From 2009 to 20012, Dr. Spence worked at the White House on the National Security Council as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for International Economic Affairs and as Senior Advisor to two National Security Advisors. He also served on the Obama-Biden Presidential Transition Team.
Dr. Spence is the co-founder of the Truman National Security Project, was a Lecturer in International Relations at Oxford University, and has been widely published in national security and foreign policy, including in the Yale Law Journal, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times. Trained as a lawyer, Dr. Spence also practiced criminal and international law in California, and served as a law clerk for Judge Richard Posner of the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals. A Marshall Scholar and Truman Scholar, Dr. Spence received his doctorate in International Relations from Oxford University; J.D. from Yale Law School; and B.A. and M.A. in International Policy Studies from Stanford University. He was born and raised in Southern California.
Adam Szubin, Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence, U.S. Department of the Treasury
Adam J. Szubin serves as the Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. In this role, Mr. Szubin leads the policy, enforcement, regulatory, and intelligence functions of the Treasury Department aimed at identifying and disrupting the lines of financial support to international terrorist organizations, proliferators of weapons of mass destruction, narcotics traffickers, and other actors posing a threat to our national security or foreign policy.
During his tenure at the Treasury, Mr. Szubin served as the Director of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) from 2006-2015 and, earlier, as the Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. Prior to joining Treasury, Mr. Szubin served as Counsel to the Deputy Attorney General at the Department of Justice and worked as a trial attorney in the Civil Division, serving as a member of the Terrorism Litigation Task Force. From 1999 to 2000, Mr. Szubin clerked for Judge Ronald Gilman on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.
Mr. Szubin received his J.D., cum laude, from Harvard Law School in 1999, and his B.A., magna cum laude, from Harvard College in 1995. Mr. Szubin was also a Fulbright scholar. He lives with his wife and three children in Washington, DC.
The Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law is a non-partisan multidisciplinary research institute established in 2003 to focus on cultivating an informed dialogue and conducting groundbreaking research on the most important national security, legal, and strategic issues of the post-9/11 era.
The mission of the Center for a New American Security (CNAS) is to develop strong, pragmatic and principled national security and defense policies. Building on the expertise and experience of its staff and advisors, CNAS engages policymakers, experts and the public with innovative, fact-based research, ideas and analysis to shape and elevate the national security debate. A key part of our mission is to inform and prepare the national security leaders of today and tomorrow.